Med Sci Sports Exerc. Ergogenic effects of creatine in sports and rehabilitation. Bemben et al [ 24 ] have shown no additional benefits of creatine alone or combined with whey protein for improving strength and muscle mass after a progressive 14 weeks 3 days per week resistance training program in older men.
No limitations were placed on the dates of the searches, and the final search was completed in August Key Points When dietary supplement use was compiled by sport, elite versus non-elite athletic status, and supplement type there was high variability in use prevalence among studies.
A prime example is the combination of creatine with carbohydrate or protein and carbohydrate for augmenting creatine muscle retention [ 5 ] mediated through an insulin response from the pancreas [ 69 ]. Changes in lean mass were positively correlated to the modifications in intramuscular total creatine stores which were also correlated with the modified levels of intramuscular IGF Patients have been supplemented with 40 g while in healthy adults positive results have been reported with around 20 g per day [ 49 ].
These findings were novel because at the time no other research had noted such improvements in body composition at the cellular and sub cellular level in resistance trained participants supplementing with creatine. Does oral creatine supplementation improve strength? Brand names that contained multiple supplements were not included unless the brand name could be identified as having a single major identifiable dietary supplement.
Two unique studies produced two reports each [ 32 — 35 ], one resulted in three publications [ 36 — 38 ], and one resulted in four articles [ 1239 — 41 ]. It has been advised that further research be carried out into the effects of creatine supplementation and health in the elderly and adolescent [ 7375 ].
J Nutr Health Aging. Such a reaction happens when grilling or pan-frying meat. These are isolated reports in which recommended dosages are not followed or there is a history of previous health complaints, such as renal disease or those taking nephrotoxic medication aggravated by creatine supplementation [ 73 ].
Furthermore, creatine supplementation does not increase symptoms nor negatively affect hydration or thermoregulation status of athletes exercising in the heat [ 8384 ].
Beard J, Tobin B. Effects of creatine ingestion to improve recovery from injury, muscle damage and oxidative stress induced by exercise Creatine supplementation may also be of benefit to injured athletes.
Abstract Background Dietary supplements DSs are commercially available products consumed as an addition to the usual diet and are frequently ingested by athletes. Furthermore the supplement group had an increase in serum creatinine but not creatinine clearance suggesting no negative effect on renal function.
If sample sizes were not provided for a particular group or subgroup, the study could not be included because sample sizes are required for meta-analysis.
The majority of the human body's total creatine and phosphocreatine stores is located in skeletal muscle, while the remainder is distributed in the bloodbrain, and other tissues. Creatine uptake is regulated by various mechanisms, namely phosphorylation and glycosylation as well as extracellular and intracellular levels of creatine.
Creatine can also be manufactured in an ester form. The body produces some of the creatine it uses. Studies were graded on an 8-point scale that included evaluations for sampling methods, sampling frame, sample size, measurement tools, bias, response rate, statistical presentation, and description of the participant sample.
This paper presents a systematic literature review describing the prevalence of dietary supplement use in athletes. Factors influencing creatine loading into human skeletal muscle.
Also, do check out many more chromatography applications for nutritional supplements on this blog. Cooke et al [ 41 ] observed positive effects of a prior 0. Collectively the above investigations indicate that creatine supplementation can be an effective strategy to maintain total creatine pool during a rehabilitation period after injury as well as to attenuate muscle damage induced by a prolonged endurance training session.
Secondly, it was speculated that taking creatine would lead on to more dangerous performance enhancing products such as anabolic steroids. Effect of 28 days of creatine ingestion on muscle metabolism and performance of a simulated cycling road race.Analysis of the effect of creatine supplementation on skeletal muscle fatigue was performed using the intensity of muscle contraction to electrical stimulation to evaluate the intensity of muscle.
Scientific basis and practical aspects of creatine supplementation for athletes: Link: Meta-analysis: Creatine supplementation does not affect clinical health markers in football players. Link: Effects of creatine use on the athlete's kidney.
Link: Jul 20, · Creatine use in children and adolescents. However more complete in vivo pharmaceutical analysis of creatine salts are required to fully elucidate their potential advantages/disadvantages over the currently available supplement formulations.
Metzl JD, Small E, Levine SR, Gershel JC. Creatine use among young athletes. OBJECTIVES: Oral creatine is the most widely used nutritional supplement among athletes.
Our purpose was to investigate whether creatine supplementation increases maximal strength and power in healthy adults. STUDY DESIGN: Meta-analysis of existing literature. DATA SOURCES: We searched MEDLINE (–) and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (through June ) to locate relevant.
Creatine. The use of creatine by athletes has caused much controversy, with many calls for its use to be prohibited.
The only justification for this seems to be that it is effective in improving performance: if this is the basis for banning it, then training should also be banned. Cost – benefit analysis of supplement use. Athletes use.
To determine the prevalence, frequency, and patterns of creatine use among a local population of high school athletes. Subjects and Methods Male and female high school athletes completed an anonymous questionnaire on creatine use during the August preparticipation examinations at a single institutional sports medicine center.Download